this is the parable of the tenants and the landowner was extraordinarily patient. If the vineyard owner was God and he sent prophets who are mistreated or killed and finally his son. the people were probably the Israelis at that time. also should they pay taxes to Caesar? then the woman with 7 brothers as husbands. this whole chapter is about giving and the first story is about what is due to God, the second is what is due to Caesar. it finally ends with the poor widow giving everything. he is speaking out against the Herodians who were the leaders of the Jews at that time. this gospel came out in the 70-80s amid the destruction of the temple snd Jerusalem. the Herodians were people working with and for Herod in the 30s. this chapter is about the rabbi type of questioning, challenge and response format. the last section of ch. 11 questioned Jesus authority and in 12 his answers to rabbinic questions which were intended to trip him up. Babylon was a veiled reference to Rome because you didn’t criticize the Romans. anathema was the split between those who had to pay the temple tax and those who didn’t. early Christians didn’t want to pay taxes so said they weren’t Jews. this raised the whole problem of whether Christians had to become Jews first. the Sadducees only believed in the Pentateuch.